一家名为 Nomad Capitalist 的公司近期对 199个国家和地区的“护照含金量”进行了排名。

2012年,拥有丰富旅行和创业经验的博主 Andrew Henderson 创立 Nomad 公司,分享自己在海外生活、从事商业活动和投资的相关经验,每年吸引超过 300万人次的独立访客。

Nomad 这份榜单采用加权法,除可免签的国家和地区外,还根据国家对居住在海外的公民征收的所得税、国家整体全球声誉、公民和个人自由,及同时持有多张护照的能力等条件得出结果。

Nomad Capitalist, a global consulting firm, has ranked 199 countries by “value of citizenship” and according to its Nomad Passport Index, Australians have the 16th most valuable passport in the world.

Countries are assessed based on visa-free travel, taxation, perception, dual citizenship and overall freedom.

力压众多欧盟国,瑞典位居这份榜单的榜首,而美国竟然没能进入前 20,中国香港位居 40,中国大陆位居 164。

一张瑞典护照允许持有者免签进入 176个国家和地区,仅比德国少一个。Andrew Henderson 表示,长居国外的瑞典人能轻易“摆脱瑞典的高税收,轻松地去税收更低的地方生活。在这方面,能与瑞典一较高下的国家并不多。”

European citizens are the owners of the most valuable passports in the world with the top ten spots all countries in Europe. But the world’s most powerful passport belongs to Sweden.

Swedish citizens can not only visit 176 countries without a visa, but they enjoy an “excellent reputation” abroad, the ability to hold dual or multiple citizenships, high levels of personal freedom, and the ability to easily escape Swedish taxes by moving overseas.

Nomad “护照含金量”排行榜前 44名的国家中,33个是欧洲国家。美国与斯洛文尼亚并列 35名,都拥有 174个国家的免签许可。美国法律规定,不管公民是否居住在美国,不论在世界何处赚的钱一律都要收税,此外,世界不少地方对美国存在敌意,都导致美国分数偏低。

The United States passport, on the other hand, isn’t so desirable. It ranked 35th on the list, in a tie with Slovenia. Although US citizens are able to travel easily to more countries than Australia — with visa-free access to 174 countries — they are also taxed on their worldwide income no matter where they live, do not have a respected reputation globally, and appear to have less freedoms than other countries.

据一家法律事务所的报告,去年,放弃美国国籍的人数同比增长 26%至 5400人以上,创历史新高。在所有原因中,境外罚款进一步加重是近 20年脱离美国籍人数增长的最主要原因。

Last year, more than 5,400 people renounced their American citizenship, setting a new annual record amd a 26 percent increase from 2015, according to a law firm report.

从自由标准来看,Nomad 参考了义务兵役、政府监督、针对非公民的法律、监禁率、世界新闻自由指数和经济自由指数。(因俄罗斯在波罗的海的军事活动,瑞典重新发布义务兵役,所以 2018年的全球护照含金量冠军很有可能不再是瑞典)

In its freedom gauge, Nomad considered mandatory military service, government surveillance, laws that target nonresident citizens, incarceration rate, and the World Press Freedom Index and Economic Freedom Index. (Sweden on Thursday reimposed compulsory military service, due to Russian military activity along the Baltic Sea. So the 2018 list may already be in for a switch at the top.)

Nomad 公司表示,美国部分法律适用于非美国居民。如反海外腐败法(Foreign Corrupt Practices Act)就涉及外商、在海外行贿的美国居民、及在美国上市的海外公司。“我们坚信,言论出版自由是好事,但通过立法严格要求非美国公民并不好。”

“We believe that freedom of speech and of the press is a good thing, and imposing laws on nonresident citizens is generally a bad idea,” Nomad wrote in its report, citing America’s far-reaching Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as an example of a law that applies to nonresident citizens.

 

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The complete rankings of the Nomad Passport Index can be found here.